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10/19/2014 9:26 pm  #11


Re: Law and International Law

 Natural Person
A human being, naturally born, versus a legally generated juridical person.
A living, breathing human being, as opposed to a legal entity such as a corporation. Different rules and protections apply to natural persons and corporations, such as the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination, which applies only to natural persons.
Now here is a rather interesting definition.

10/20/2014 1:34 pm  #12


Re: Law and International Law

I The initial letter of the word “Insti- tuta,” used by some civilians in citing theInstitutes of Justinian. Tayl. Civil Law, 24.
 

10/20/2014 1:52 pm  #13


Re: Law and International Law

Pledge- In the law of bailment. A bailment of goods to a creditor as security for some debt or engagement. A bailment or delivery of goods by a debtor to his creditor, to be kept till the debt lie discharged. Story, Bailm. The deposition of any property or cash, originally under the ownership of the debtor, with the creditor for security to a loan. contracts. He who becomes security for another, and, in this sense, every one who becomes bail for another is a pledge.
 

10/20/2014 1:56 pm  #14


Re: Law and International Law

Allegiance Ry allegiance is meant the obligation of fidelity and obedience which the individual owes to the government under which he lives, or to his sovereign in return for the protection he receives. It may be an absolute and permanent obligation, or it may be a qualified and temporary one. The citizen or subject owes an absolute and permanent allegiance to his government or sovereign, or at least until, by some open and distinct act, he renounces it and becomes a citizen or subject of another government or another sovereign. The alien, while domiciled in the country, owes a local and temporary allegiance, which continues during the period of his residence. Carlisle v. U. S The tie which binds the citizen to the government, in return for the protection which the government affords him. 2. It is natural, acquired, or local. Natural allegiance is such as is due from all men born within the United States; acquired allegiance is that which is due by a naturalized citizen. It has never been decided whether a citizen can, by expatriation, divest himself absolutely of that character. Infants cannot assume allegiance, (4 Bin. 49) although they enlist in the army of the United States. 3. It seems, however, that he cannot renounce his allegiance to the United States without the permission of the government, to be declared by law. But for commercial purposes he may acquire the rights of a citizen of another country, and the place of his domicil determines the character of a party as to trade.4. Local allegiance is that which is due from an alien, while resident in the United States, for the protection which the government affords him.
To -This term applies to taking an appeal, to appeal a decision of a lower court by taking it to a higher court.
Flag-A national standard on which are certain emblems; an ensign; a banner. It iscarried by soldiers, ships, etc., and commonly displayed at forts and many othersuitable places.ATECHNICAL ANALYSIS pattern where a security or index price fluctuates in a narrow, and relatively stable, range (the body of the flag) preceded and/or followed by large upward or downward moves (the flagpole). See also PENNANT.
 

10/20/2014 3:05 pm  #15


Re: Law and International Law

Nation A people, or aggregation of men, existing in the form of an organized jural society, inhabiting a distinct portion of the earth, speaking the same language, using the same customs, possessing historic continuity, and distinguished from other like groups by their racial origin and characteristics, and generally, but not necessarily, living under the same government and sovereignty. See Montoya v. U. S., 180 U. S. 201, 21 Sup. Ct 358, 45 L. Ed. 521; Worcester v. Georgia, 6 Pet. 539, 8 L. Ed. 483; Republic of Honduras v. Soto, 112 N. Y. 310, 19 N. E. 845, 2 L. R. A. 042, 8 Am. St. Rep. 744.     Besides the element of autonomy or self-government, that is, the independence of the community as a whole from the interference of any foreign power in its affairs or any subjection to such power, it is further necessary to the constitution of a nation that it should be an organized jural society, that is, both governing its own members by regular laws, and defining and protecting their rights, and respecting the rights and duties which attach to it as a constituent member of the family of nations. Such a so- ciety, says Vattel, has her affairs and her interests ; she deliberates and takes resolutions in common; thus becoming a moral person, who possesses an understanding and will peculiar to herself, and is susceptible of obligations and rights. Vattel,
Indivisible Not susceptible of division or apportioument; inseparable; en INDIVISUM 619         INDUBITABLE PROOF tire. Thus, a contract, covenant, consideration, etc., may be divisible or indivisible;
Liberty 1. Freedom; exemption from extraneous control. The power of the will, in its moral freedom, to follow the dictates of its unrestricted choice, and to direct the external acts of the individual without restraint, coercion, or control from other persons. See Booth v. Illinois, 1S4 U. S. 425, 22 Sup. Ct. 425, 46 L. Ed. 623 ; Munn v. Illinois, 94 U. S. 142. 24 L. Ed. 77; People v. Warden of City Prison. 157 N. Y. 116, 51 N. E. 1006. 43 L. R. A. 264, 68 Am. St. Rep. 7ikFreedom from restraint. The power of acting as one thinks fit, without any restraint or control, except from the laws of nature. 2. Liberty is divided into civil, natural, personal, and political. 3. Civil liberty is the power to do whatever is permitted by the constitution of the state and the laws of the land. It is no other than natural lib-erty, so far restrained by human laws, and no further, operating equally upon all the citizens, as is necessary and expedient for the general advantage of the public. That system of laws is alone calculated to maintain civil liberty, which leaves the citizen entirely master of his own conduct, except in those points in which the public good requires some direction and restrant. When a man is restrained in his natural liberty by no municipal laws but those which are requisite to prevent his violating the natural law, and to promote the greatest moral and physical welfare of the community, he is legally possessed of the fullest enjoyment of his civil rights of individual liberty. But it must not be inferred that individuals are to judge for themselves how far the law may justifiably restrict their individual liberty; for it is necessary to-the welfare of the commonwealth, that the law should be obeyed; and thence is derived the legal maxim, that no man may be wiser than the law. 5. Natural liberty is the right which nature gives to all mankind, of diposing of their persons and property after the manner they judge most consonant to their happiness, on condition of their acting within the limits of the law of nature, and that they do not in any way abuse it to the prejudice of other men. Burlamaqui, c. 3, s. 15; 1 Bl. Com. 125. 6. Personal liberty is the independence of our actions of all other will than our own. Wolff, Ins. Nat. Section 77. It consists in the power of locomotion, of changing situation, or removing one’s person to whatever place one’s inclination may direct, without imprisonment or restraint, unless by due course of law. 1 Bl. Com. 134. 7. Political liberty may be defined to be, the security by which, from the constitution, form and nature of the established government, the citizens enjoy civil liberty. No ideas or definitions are more distinguishable than those of civil aud political liberty, yet they are generally confounded. 1 Bl. Com. 6, 125. The political liberty of a state is based upon those fundamental laws which establish the distribution of legislative and executive powers. The political liberty of a citizen is that tranquillity of mind, which is the effect of an opinion that he is in perfect security; and to insure this security, the government must be such that one citizen shall not fear another.
Justice -Protecting rights and punishing wrongs using fairness. It is possible to have unjust laws, even with fair and proper administration of the law of the land as a way for all legal systems to uphold this ideal.The constant and perpetual disposition to render every man his due.
 

10/20/2014 3:53 pm  #16


Re: Law and International Law

 I (the institute) pledge (becomes property of another)allegiance (obligation of fidelity and obedience which the individual owes to the government under which he lives, or to his sovereign in return for the protection he receives.)to(a higher court)my flag(ATECHNICAL ANALYSIS pattern where a security or index price fluctuates in a narrow, and relatively stable, range (the body of the flag) preceded and/or followed by large upward or downward moves (the flagpole)and the republic (A commonwealth; a form of government which derives all its powers directly or indirectly from the general body of citizens, and in which the executive power is lodged in officers chosen by and representing the people, and holding office for a limited period, or at most during good behavior or at the pleasure of the people)for which it stands(remain as a thing is; to remain in force.)one nation(A people, or aggregation of men, existing in the form of an organized jural society, inhabiting a distinct portion of the earth, speaking the same language, using the same customs, possessing historic continuity, and distinguished from other like groups by their racial origin and characteristics, and generally, but not necessarily, living under the same government and sovereignty.)Indivisible (Not susceptible of division or apportioument; inseparable)with liberty(Freedom; exemption from extraneous control. The power of the will, in its moral freedom, to follow the dictates of its unrestricted choice, and to direct the external acts of the individual without restraint, coercion, or control from other persons.)and justice (The constant and perpetual disposition to render every man his due.) for all (Collectively, this term designates the whole number of particulars, individuals, or separate items; distributively. it may be equivalent to “each” or “every.”)Here's the breakdown.

10/20/2014 5:36 pm  #17


Re: Law and International Law

I noticed how the definition for "person" includes "corporations,  organizations, institutions and all of the likes". My question is; what determines when the law is identifying man/woman/human versus land/business?

10/20/2014 9:53 pm  #18


Re: Law and International Law

There is a definition for a natural person. But the law can only determine who a person in court. As the person must identify themselves by representation if the person says " I am ______ and I represent ____"

10/20/2014 9:55 pm  #19


Re: Law and International Law

Natural Person
A human being, naturally born, versus a legally generated juridical person.
A living, breathing human being, as opposed to a legal entity such as a corporation. Different rules and protections apply to natural persons and corporations, such as the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination, which applies only to natural persons.

  

10/20/2014 10:07 pm  #20


Re: Law and International Law

An artificial person or legal entity created by or under the authority of the laws of a state or nation, composed, in some rare instances, of a single person and his successors, being the incumbents of a particular oltice, but ordinarily consisting of an association of numerous individuals, who subsist as a body politic under a special denomination, which is regarded In law as having a personality and existence distinct from that of its several members, and which is, by the same authority, vested with the capacity of continuous succession, irrespective of changes in its membership, either in perpetuity or for a limited term of years, and of acting as a unit or single individual in matters relating to the common purpose of the association, within the scope of the powers and authorities conferred upon such bodies by law. See Case of Sutton’s Hospital, 10 Coke. 32; Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 4 Wheat. 518, 636, 657. 4 L. Ed. 629; U. S. v. Trinidad Coal Co., 137 U. S. 160, 11 Sup. Ct. 57. 34 L. Ed. 640; Andrews Bros. Co. v. Youngstown Coke Co., 86 Fed. 585, 30 C. C. A. 293; Porter v. Railroad Co., 76 111. 573; State v. Payne, 129 Mo. 468, 31 S. W. 797. 33 L. R. A. 576; Farmers’ L. & T. Co. v. New York, 7 Hill (N. Y.) 2S3; State BL.LAW DICT.(2D ED.)Corporation

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